Dark Sun: The Tyrant of Tyr
The Code of Hamanu
The following is an excerpt from the laws of Urik
“Hamanu, King of the World, Lord of the Heavens and the Earth, Lion of Urik am I; my kingdom is unequaled among the lands; my will law; my reign supreme; my mercy infinitesimal. I have no equal among mortal and immortal alike; there is none who can challenge me, for my might is eternal and my power is omnipotent. By my will, whose foundations are laid so solidly as those of the heavens and the earth, this law is laid forth, so that none may have will against mine own, and that all may wor to the fulfillment of my undeniable will. Hamanu, the Conqueror, called of Athas am I, making riches and increase. I made great the name of Urik and brought plenteous water to its inhabitants, heaped up the harests, and smote mine enemy with fire. My reach is as the sun, whose rays shed light over the lands of Urik and beyond. I am the King, obeyed by the four quarters of the world. Beloved of Urik, am I.”
CODE OF LAWS
ACCUSATION1. If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the arena and there engage in combat before the people, if he there perish, his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the arena prove that the accused is not guilty, and he triumph, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who in the arena shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser. 2. If any one bring an accusation of any crime before my templars, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be sent to the arena to do combat. 3. If he satisfy the templars to impose a fine of water, grain, or money, he shall receive the fine that the action produces. 4. If a templar try a case, reach a decision, and present his judgment in writing; if later error shall appear in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then if it be against a noble, then he shall pay twelve times the fine set by him in the case, and he shall be publicly removed from the judge’s bench, and never again shall he sit there to render judgement. 5. If it be against a freed man, then he shall reverse his decision, but may remain a judge. 6. If it be against a slave, then there is no error.
THIEVERY7. If any one steal the property of a templar or of Hamanu, he shall be sentenced to combat in the arena, and also the one who receives the stolen thing from him shall be sent to the arena. 8. If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man, without witnesses or a contract, ceramic or silver, a male or female slave, an inix or a kank, a mekillot or anything, or if he take it in charge, he is considered a thief and shall be sent to the arena to do combat. 9. If any one steal inix or kank, or a mekillot, or a crodlu or any other beast, if it belong to Hamanu or to a templar, the thief shall pay thirtyfold therefore; if they belonged to a freed man he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay he shall be sent to fight in the arena. 10. If any one lose an article, and find it in the possession of another: if the person in whose possession the thing is found say “A merchant sold it to me, I paid for it before witnesses,” and if the owner of the thing say, “I will bring witnesses who know my property,” then shall the purchaser bring the merchant who sold it to him, and the witnesses before whom he bought it, and the owner shall bring witnesses who can identify his property. The templar shall examine their testimony—both of the witnesses before whom the price was paid, and of the witnesses who identify the lost article on oath. The merchant is then proved to be a thief and shall be sentenced to arena combat. The owner of the lost article receives his property, and he who bought it receives the money he paid from the estate of the merchant. 11. If the purchaser does not bring the merchant and the witnesses before whom he bought the article, but its owner bring witnesses who identify it, then the buyer is the thief and shall be put to death, and the owner receives the lost article. 12. If the owner do not bring witnesses to identify the lost article, he is an evil-doer, he has traduced, and shall be sentenced to arena combat. 13. If the witnesses be not at hand, then shall the templar set a limit, at the expiration of six months. If his witnesses have not appeared within the six months, he is an evil-doer, and shall bear the fine of the pending case. 14. If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death. 15. If any one take a male or female slave of a templar, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death. 16. If any one receive into his house a runaway male or female slave of a templar, or of a freedman, he shall be put to death. 17. If any one find runaway male or female slaves in the open country and bring them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two ceramic pieces. 18. If the slave will not give the name of the master, the finder shall bring him to the templars; a further investigation must follow, and the slave shall be returned to his master. 19. If he hold the slaves in his house, and they are caught there, he shall be put to death. 20. If the slave that he caught run away from him, then shall he swear to the owners of the slave, and he is free of all blame. 21. If any one break a hole into a house (break in to steal), he shall be put to death before that hole and be buried. 22. If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be sentenced to arena combat. 23. If the thief is not caught, then shall he who was robbed claim under oath before a templar the amount of his loss; then shall the community, the person on whose ground and territory – and templar in whose domain it was compensate him for the goods stolen. 24. If fire break out in a house, and some one who comes to put it out cast his eye upon the property of the owner of the house, and take the property of the master of the house, he shall be thrown into that self-same fire.
SOLDIERS25. If an officer or a soldier, who has been ordered to go upon Hamanu’s highway for war does not go, but hires a mercenary, if he withholds the compensation, then shall this officer or man be put to death, and he who represented him shall take possession of his house. 26. If an officer or soldier be caught in battle, and if his property be given to another and he take possession, if he return and reaches his place, his property shall be returned to him, he shall take it over again. 27. If an officer or a soldier be caught in battle, if his son is able to enter into possession, then the property shall be given to him, he shall take over the fee of his father. 28. If his son is still young, and can not take possession, a third of the property shall be given to his mother, and she shall bring him up. 29. If an officer or a soldier is captured in war, and a merchant buy him free, and bring him back to his place; if he have the means in his house to buy his freedom, he shall buy himself free: if he have nothing in his house with which to buy himself free, he shall not be freed.
CONSPIRATORS30. If conspirators meet in the house of a tavern-keeper, and these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the templars, the tavern-keeper shall be sent to the arena to do combat.
CLAIMS31. If any one be on a journey and entrust pieces of ceramic, of silver, precious stones, or any movable property to another, and wish to recover it from him; if the latter do not bring all of the property to the appointed place, but appropriate it to his own use, then shall this man, who did not bring the property to hand it over, be convicted, and he shall pay fivefold for all that had been entrusted to him. 32. If any one have a claim for water, grain, or money upon another and imprison him; if the prisoner die in prison a natural death, the case shall go no further. 33. If the prisoner die in prison from blows or maltreatment, the master of the prisoner shall convict the merchant before a templar. If he was a free-born man, the son of the merchant shall be sent to the arena; if it was a slave, he shall pay five silver, and all that the master of the prisoner gave he shall forfeit.
MARRIAGE34. If a man take a woman to wife, but have no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him. 35. If a man’s wife be surprised with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into a pit, but the husband may pardon his wife. 36. If a man give his daughter by a concubine a dowry, and a husband, and a deed; if then her father die, she shall receive no portion from the paternal estate. 37. If a man do not give a dowry to his daughter by a concubine, and no husband; if then her father die, her brother shall give her a dowry according to her father’s wealth and secure a husband for her.
ADOPTION38. If a man adopt a child and to his name as son, and rear him, this grown son can not be demanded back again. 39. If a man adopt a son, and if after he has taken him he injure his foster father and mother, then this adopted son shall return to his father’s house. 40. The son of a paramour in the palace service, or of a prostitute, can not be demanded back. 41. If an artisan has undertaken to rear a child and teaches him his craft, he can not be demanded back. 42. If he has not taught him his craft, this adopted son may return to his father’s house. 43. If a man does not maintain a child that he has adopted as a son and reared with his other children, then his adopted son may return to his father’s house. 44. If a man, who had adopted a son and reared him, founded a household, and had children, wish to put this adopted son out, then this son shall not simply go his way. His adoptive father shall give him of his wealth one-third of a child’s portion, and then he may go. He shall not give him of the field, garden, and house. 45. If a son of a paramour or a prostitute say to his adoptive father or mother: “You are not my father, or my mother,” his tongue shall be cut off. 46. If the son of a paramour or a prostitute desire his father’s house, and desert his adoptive father and adoptive mother, and goes to his father’s house, then shall his eye be put out. 47. If a man give his child to a nurse and the child die in her hands, but the nurse unbeknown to the father and mother nurse another child, then they shall convict her of having nursed another child without the knowledge of the father and mother and her breasts shall be cut off.
ACTS OF VIOLENCE48. If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off. 49. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out. 50. If he break another man’s bone, his bone shall be broken. 51. If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold coin or its equivalent in goods. 52. If he put out the eye of a man’s slave, or break the bone of a man’s slave, he shall pay one-half of its value. 53. If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out. 54. If he knock out the teeth of a freed man, he shall pay three silvers or its equivalent in goods. 55. If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with a sygra-whip in public. 56. If a freed man strike the body of another freed man, he shall pay one silver or its equivalent in goods. 57. If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off. 58. If during a quarrel one man strike another and wound him, then he shall swear, “I did not injure him wittingly,” and pay the physicians. 59. If the man die of his wound, he shall swear similarly, and if he (the deceased) was a free-born man, he shall pay five silvers in money. 60. If he was a freed man, he shall pay three silvers or its equivalent in goods. 61. If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay one silver or its equivalent in goods for her loss. 62. If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to death. 63. If a woman of the free class lose her child by a blow, he shall pay five ceramics in money. 64. If this woman die, he shall pay five silvers or its equivalent in goods. 65. If he strike the maid-servant of a man, and she lose her child, he shall pay two ceramics in money. 66. If this maid-servant die, he shall pay three silvers or its equivalent in goods.
PHYSICIANS67. If a physician make a large incision with an operating knife and cure it, or if he open a tumor (over the eye) with an operating knife, and saves the eye, he shall receive one silver in money. 68. If the patient be a freed man, he receives five ceramics. 69. If he be the slave of some one, his owner shall give the physician two ceramics. 70. If a physician make a large incision with the operating knife, and kill him, or open a tumor with the operating knife, and cut out the eye, his hands shall be cut off. 71. If a physician make a large incision in the slave of a freed man, and kill him, he shall replace the slave with another slave. 72. If he had opened a tumor with the operating knife, and put out his eye, he shall pay half his value. 73. If a physician heal the broken bone or diseased soft part of a man, the patient shall pay the physician five ceramics in money. 74. If he were a freed man he shall pay three ceramics. 75. If he were a slave his owner shall pay the physician two ceramics. 76. If a veterinary surgeon perform a serious operation on a crodlu or an inix, and cure it, the owner shall pay the surgeon one-fifth of a ceramic as a fee. 77. If he perform a serious operation on a crodlu, inix or other beast of burden, and kill it, he shall pay the owner one-fourth of its value.
BARBERS78. If a barber, without the knowledge of his master, cut the sign of a slave on a slave not to be sold, the hands of this barber shall be cut off. 79. If any one deceive a barber, and have him mark a slave not for sale with the sign of a slave, he shall be put to death, and buried in his house. The barber shall swear: “I did not mark him wittingly,” and shall be guiltless.
BUILDERS80. If a builder build a house for some one and complete it, he shall give him a fee of two ceramics in money for each squaremeter of surface. 81. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner, then that builder shall be sentenced to arena combat. 82. If it kill the son of the owner the son of that builder shall be put to death. 83. If it kill a slave of the owner, then he shall pay slave for slave to the owner of the house. 84. If it ruin goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which he built and it fell, he shall re-erect the house from his own means. 85. If a builder build a house for some one, even though he has not yet completed it; if then the walls seem toppling, the builder must make the walls solid from his own means.
BEASTS OF BURDEN86. If any one impresses a beast of burden for forced labor, he shall pay three silvers in money. 87. If any one hire carru for a year, he shall pay four silvers worth of corn for plow-carru. 88. As rent of herd sygra he shall pay three silvers worth of corn to the owner. 89. If any one hire a kank, inix or a crodlu, and a dune reaper kill it in the field, the loss is upon its owner. 90. If any one hire beasts of burden, and kill them by bad treatment or blows, he shall compensate the owner, beast for beast. 91. If a man hire a kank, and he break its leg or damage its antennae, he shall compensate the owner with kank for kank. 92. If any one hire a beast of burden, and put out its eye, he shall pay the owner one-half of its value. 93. If any one hire a sygra, and break off a horn, or cut off its tail, or hurt its muzzle, he shall pay one-fourth of its value in money. 94. If any one hire a beast, and lightning strike it that it die, the man who hired it shall swear by Hamanu and be considered guiltless. 95. If an animal or beast is found within the city walls, it is a citizen’s duty to kill it and summon the templars. The owner can set up no claim. 96. If a mekillot be rampant, and it shown that he is rampant, and he do not control the beast, or summon a psionicist for aid, and the mekillot tramples on a free-born man and kill him, the owner shall pay five silvers in money. 97. If he kill a man’s slave, he shall pay three silvers or its equivalent in goods.
TENDING FIELDS98. If any one agree with another to tend his field, give him seed, entrust a yoke of beasts to him, and bind him to cultivate the field, if he steal the corn or plants, and take them for himself, his hands shall be hewn off. 99. If he take the seed-corn for himself, and do not use the yoke of beasts, he shall compensate him for the amount of the seed-corn.
100. If he sublet the man’s yoke of beasts or steal the seed-corn, planting nothing in the field, he shall be convicted, and pay for each ceramic worth of corn that was to be made from the sawcorn. For each day and each beast sublet he shall receive ten blows with a sygra-whip.
101. If his community will not pay for him, then he shall be placed in that field with the beasts (at work).
102. If any one hire a field laborer, he shall pay him at least four silvers worth of corn per year .
103. If any one hire a beast-tamer, he shall pay him at least six silvers worth of corn per year.
104. If any one steal a water-wheel from the field, he shall pay five ceramics in money to its owner.
105. If any one steal a shadduf (used to draw water from the river or canal) or a plow, he shall pay three ceramics in money.
106. If any one hire a herdsman for carru, sygra or other herd animals, he shall pay him at least eight silvers worth of corn per year.
107. If he kill the animals or beasts of burden that were given to him, he shall compensate the owner with animal for animal and beast for beast.
108. If a herdsman, to whom animals or beasts have been entrusted for watching over, and who has received his wages as agreed upon, and is satisfied, diminish the number of the animals and beasts, or make the increase by birth less, he shall make good the increase or profit which was lost in the terms of settlement.
109. If a herdsman, to whose care animals or beasts have been entrusted, be guilty of fraud and make false returns of the natural increase, or sell them for money, then shall he be convicted and pay the owner ten times the loss.
110. If the animal be killed in the stable by accident, or if a monster kill it, the herdsman shall declare his innocence before Hamanu, and the owner bears the accident in the stable.
111. If the herdsman overlook something, and an accident happen in the stable, then the herdsman is at fault for the accident which he has caused in the stable, and he must compensate the owner for the animals or beasts.
112. If any one hire an inix for threshing, the amount of the hire is one ceramic worth of corn.
113. If he hire a mekillot for threshing, the hire is two ceramics worth of corn.
114. If he hire a young animal for threshing, the hire is five bits worth of corn.
115. If any one hire kank, cart and driver, he shall pay three ceramics worth of corn per day.
116. If any one hire a cart alone, he shall pay four bits worth of corn per day.
117. If any one hire a day laborer, he shall pay him from the New Year until the fifth month (when days are long and the work hard) at least six bits in money per day; from the sixth month to the end of the year he shall give him at least five bits per day.
118. If any one hire a skilled artisan, he shall pay as wages of the half-day at least five bits, as wages of the potter five bits, of a tailor five bits, of a carpenter five bits, of a ropemaker four bits, of a mason four bits a day.
PURCHASE OF SLAVES
119. If any one buy a male or female slave, and before a month has elapsed the benu-disease be developed, he shall return the slave to the seller, and receive the money which he had paid.
120. If any one by a male or female slave, and a third party claim it, the seller is liable for the claim.
121. If while in a foreign city a man buy a male or female slave belonging to another of his own city if when he return home the owner of the male or female slave recognize it: if the male or female slave be a native of the city, he shall
give them back without any money.
122. If they are from another city, the buyer shall declare the amount of money paid therefore to the merchant, and keep the male or female slave.
123. If a slave say to his master: “You are not my master,” if they convict him his master shall cut off his ear.